Color New Social Doc 12

P106
Becky Siegel

Street photography was gritty and Advertising photography was a rejection of it.

Half Tone
-process that produces continuous tones and colors on a printing press
-screens that are printed of different sizes of color
-allowed magazines like Life, to produce color photos (advertisements)
-allowed newspapers to print black and white.
Editorial Photography
-inherited from modernists
-coincides with advertising

Outerbridge
-shot illustrations for magazines that would have text.

Irving Penn
-shot for all major magazines
-cared a lot about his prints and the meaning in his photos
-photographed artsy still-life's
-worked for Vogue

Bruehl
-He studied with Clarence White
-had a modernist style and geometric composition
-a lot of his photos were close ups with different view points
-had full tonal range

Muray
-Portrait photographer
-worked for Vogue and Vanity Fair
-He staged all of his photos, (woman in cell)
-airbrushed his images

Kepler
-Famous only for his advertisements
-BBBO
-"hollywood" type photos
-propaganda for the government, (camel cigarette ad)

Kotochrome
-64 step process
-chemicals that bring out color

Post WW2
-GI bill helped normal people who couldn't afford schooling to go to college
-high respect of photography

2 Modes of Photography
Directoral- irony, distance
Outsider- attached, truthful

Street Photographers
-all about being outsiders
-everything is in the street because it's all unexpected
-capturing "real America"
-all black and white, gritty
wanted to show what was really happening

Robert Frank
-Swiss born
-bought a Leica and went on the road
-his book called, "The Americans" documented life as it is on the road
-his work was street photography that you could read more into
-film called "Pull My Daisy"
-filmed the rolling stones hardcore life in a movie called "Cocksucker Blues", but it was banned.

Klein
-born in NYC and documented on the street
-dark imagery/fashion
-book called, "Grotesque Americans"
-Klein hated America because it was violent
-worked for Vogue

Model
-heavily influenced by post war photographers

Arbus
-influenced by Model
-Anti middle class
-worked for Life magazine
-studied with Richard Avedon
—-Arbus, Identical Twins, 1967
-wanted to dig down in people and show how we are all weird.
-Black and white square photos that were surreal
-photographed freaks from carnivals
-Arbus commited suicide

Winogrand
-thought photographers were part of the image
—-Winogrand, The Animals
-are the people the animals?
-weird angles
-book, "women are beautiful"
-book, "The Zoo"

Friedlander
-Anti Street
-believed the photographer is key in getting the shot
-you often see Friedlander's reflection or shadow in his photo's
-found Belloqcs Storyville portraits
-photographed similar hotels

Roy DeCarava
-His work is influenced by graphic arts
—-DeCarava, Sweet Flypaper of Life
-a lot of meaning behind the title.
-does illustrations for Langston Hughs book
-photographed a lot of jazz players and jazz clubs with smoky scenes
-good at capturing light

Levitt
-She specializes on children on the street of NYC, chalk drawings
-excellent at just letting things happen.
-brave about using color
—-Levitt, Man Slapping Boy, 1978

New Social Documentary & RIse of Color Photography

Maxwell
-in 1861 makes the oldest color print
—Maxwell, Tartan Ribbon, 1861
-The autochrome process is invented by the Lumiers in 1904

-Advertising starts using the Carbon Print from the 1920's on..
-Carbon print is only used by studio photographers because it is expensive
-Keppler, Camel cigarette ad, 1951 uses the Carbo print.

Kodachrome
-saturated, intense color
-slide film comes out in 1935,
- transparencies -1st medium that people had access to with kodachrome
-eventually makes print film in 1965
-photographers rejected color film because they liked the black and white non reality.

Evans
-Used new polaroid film because it was a way for them to test if their image was good (test)
-Evans starts using the Home Camera
-shot over 2000 personal portraits
-opens the door for other color photographers

Jim Dow
-expert color photographers
-worked with Evans
-photographs places that are in transition, magical
-railroad station

Christenberry
-influenced by Evans
-starts with a Brownie and moves to View Camera
-photos are of no people, sparse architecture
-called the buildings, "sculptures"
—Christenberry, Palmist Building, 1979
-still lives in DC

Eggleston
-used a lot of color, commercially available
Eggleston, Memphis, 1965
-inspired by "Decisive Moment"
-had a good collection of photos that helped him meet a lot of famous photographers
-simple, color images
-Eggleston, Greenwood Mississippi, 1973
-red room, white lines

Meyerowitz
-started as a street photographer in 1960's
-inspired by "The Americans"
—-Meyerowitz, Red Interior Provincetown, 1977
-mixture of colors of light
Both Eggleston & Meyerowitz are responsible for bringing color into the art world!!!

Elliot Porter
-"Ansel Adams of color photography"
-scientist, knew about chemistry
-photographed close up parts of nature
-images were used by the "Sierra Club" for conservation laws

New Social Documentary or New Journalismbold text
-photographers work on tight deadlines, paid by magazines
-in depth
-long term projects picked by the photographers
-photographer is part of the group of spends a lot of time with them in order to get more truthful, raw images.

Danny Lyon
-started with civil rights movement
-travels with "The Outlaws", a biker gang that gets him in with prisons in Texas to document

Bill Owens
-records his own suburban area
-uses direct quotes from his subjects in a book called, "Suburbia"
-suburban families in comical stereotypical situations

Bruce Davidson
-Davidson, Brooklyn Gang, c1959
-documents NYC and teenagers on the street
-meets Bresson and works for LIFE magazine
-gets signed to Magnum
-travels with a lot of artists that do freedom rides
-started riding the subway and documenting people on it
—-Davidson, Subway, c1986
-rough, tough people
-shows the fashion, music during that time

Mary Ellen Mark
-works for all major magazines
-documents Turkish prostitutes
—-"Ward 81"
-documents woman in mental hospital in Oregon
-starts working on a project called "Streetwise"
-homeless children
-convinces her husband to make a film on it.
-documents the "Damm Family" and stays with them for years, becomes more posed, shows their tough life and how they age
-She goes to India and documents trained animals in the circus

Jim Goldberg
-book called, "Rich and Poor" 1985
-San Francisco, lets people speak for themselves in the photos through writing
-book called, "Raised by Wolves"
-homeless kids
-took polaroids from around the world.

Notes by: Becky Siegel

Jen Campbell
Sept. 2, 2010
P106: Photo History
Lecture Notes

The Rise of Color & New Social Documentary
• New Social Documentary – merging of street photography and social documentary.
• James Clerk Maxwell – made the oldest color print, “Tartan Ribbon”, 1861
• The Autochrome color process was patented by the Lumiere Brothers in 1904.
~Lumiere Brothers “On the Road to La Croturt” 1907
~The early color process wasn’t poular because it was very labor intensive and expensive.
• From the 1920s on advertisers used carbon print, also knowns as carbo print. It was mainly used in studio by advertising pros because it was labor intensive and expensive.
• Kodachrome:
~Made by Kodak
~1935 – made color motion picture film
~1936 – made color slide transparency
~Print film developed in 1965
~Some advertisers made color prints from color slides, this was a very challenging project.
• Color photography was not popular in fine art due to its expense, labor intensity, and its connection to advertising. It was also rejected by photojournalists.
• Walker Evans:
~Used color Polaroid film later in life.
~Evans “ICE sign” c1974
~Used SX70 Polaroid home camera. He felt that no one under 60 should use this camera because it was too easy and they hadn’t earned it.
~Used Polaroid home camera to shoot portraits and signage.
~Mentored Jim Dow and inspired the use of color in many other photographers.
• Jim Dow – printed for Walker Evans and was inspired by his style. Used color film.
• Christenberry:
~Greatly influenced by Evans’s work in his hometown.
~Used a Brownie as a child and view camera as an adult.
~Photographed the same locations many times – was observing the decay of old buildings.
~His images were very sparse, usually did not include people.
~Made small models/sculptures of the old buildings using the materials from that site – boards, dirt, etc.
~Taught at the Corcoran.
• William Eggleston:
~First photographer to really embrace color film himself, and not just expand on Walker Evans’s ideas and style.
~Inspired by Cartier-Bressnon’s book, The Decisive Moment and the book The Americans by Robert Frank.
~Used local drugstore for developing and printing his film.
~Eggleston “Memphis” c1965
~His first solo exhibit was in D.C., and it was around this time that DC started developing as a center for contemporary photography.
~Focused on color in his images – revisited ideas of composition and abstraction focusing on the aspect of color relating to them.
~Eggleston “Greenwood Mississippi” 1973 – also known as “The Red Room” or “The Red Ceiling”
~The Museum of Modern Art had its first solo exhibit in color of his works.
• Early Southern photographers were influenced by the idea of the mysterious magical South. This was also often found in the writings of the time.
• Joel Meyerowitz:
~First professor of color photography at Coopertown Union.
~Meyerowitz “Red Interior Provincetown” 1977
~Along with Eggleston brought color into the world of fine art.
~Studied light, color, and geometric forms, mixed this with street photography.
~Was living in New York City on 9/11 and became the official World Trade Centers photographer, published Aftermath, a collection of images he made with a view camera at the site of the World Trade Centers.
• Porter:
~Known as “The Ansel Adams of Color”
~Used kodachrome transparency films and made his own prints.
~Revisted places Adams photographed and approached it in a new way – closer-up and focusing on color contras and abstractions.
~His work was used by the Sierra Club to pass conservation laws.
~Revisted a lot of old ideas and styles, but in color.
• New social documentary or new journalism was a reaction to the distance between photographer and subject. Previously the photographer had no connection to the subject. This movement encouraged the photographer to dig deeper, develop a relationship and trust within a community and with a subject. The goal was to produce more truthful photography and led to photographers working on more long-term assignments which they choose.
• Long-term social documentary assignments were often funded by grants, and were not done as an assignment for a newspaper or magazine.
• Lyon:
~New social documentary, new journalist.
~Photographed the Civil Rights Movement and Activists.
~Became a member of the Outlaws, a biker gang. He traveled with them photographing their lifestyle, and later published a book about them.
~Published Conversations with the Dead about the conditions of Texas prisons – he was able to get more truthful and revealing imagery through the connections he had with the biker gang.
~Also recorded Indian Reservations and his own family.
• Bill Owens:
~Recorded his own suburban neighborhood and published a book, Suburbia, which included quotes from his subjects.
~The book was more of a “biting critique” of suburbia – he seemed to be mocking his subjects and the rampant materialism.
• Bruce Davidson:
~Attended RIT and Yale
~Davidson “Brooklyn Gang” c1959
~Saw humor and irony in his subjects, but also made a connection and developed a relationship with his subjects.
~Documented in New York City.
~Davidson “from East 100th St.” c1968
~Published a series of behind-the scenes images of football.
~Believed you could discover the photographer in each image.
~Documented social groups.
~Was drafted in WWII, went to Paris where he met Cartier-Bresson and eventually joined Magnum Photos.
~Documented racism, segregation, and inequality in the South, and the Civil Rights Movement, including MLK’s speech and the March on DC. These images were published in Time of Change.
~Photographed urban decay in NYC in the 1980s, published the series in Subway c1986 – we have a copy in the library.
• Mary Ellen Mark:
~One of the top photographers today to come from this movement.
~Shot for Vanity Fair, Rolling Stone, Life, and Magnum
~After school she got a grant to go to Turkey to photograph prostitutes.
~Published Ward 81 a series documenting women in mental wards, which she photographed while working as the still-life photographer for “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest”.
~Published Streetwise – a series documenting street kids in the 1980s. She also worked with her husband on a documentary moving about the same kids.
~Did a series on rural poverty, which included the Damm family, whom she photographed many times over the years.
~Her work is social documentary, but is more directorial in style – she posed subjects for symbolism and meaning.
~Mark “Crissy, Dean, and Linda Damm Llano California” 1994
~Did a series on animal trainers and circus trainers in India in the 1990s.
~Now does celebrity and documentary work – uses B&W and color.
• Jim Goldberg:
~Published Rich & Poor – a series documenting the lifestyles of the very rich and very poor.
~Sent subjects prints of the image and had them write down their thoughts about their life and the image.
~Published Raised by Wolves in which he documented street kids in San Francisco, had an anthropological approach to the documentary.
~Did a series of Polaroids of people from around the world.
~Did a series about hospice care for a book that was a collaboration of several artists.
~Goldberg “Kurdish Woman Greece” 2003
• Larry Clark:
~“from Tulsa” c1965
~Known more for films than photography
~Known as “The Wild Man of Photography”
~Documented his friends in their young adult life as they went from high school football players to drug addicts. Published the series in the book Tulsa.
~Focused on ideas of sex, drugs, and youth.
~Other books: Teenage Lust and The Perfect Childhood
~Directed “Bully”
~His work is very controversial and is banned in many countries due to his portrayal of underage sex and drug abuse.
• Nan Goldin:
~Series – Ballad of Sexual Dependence
~Documented her party lifestyle in New York City. When she began to lose a lot of her friends to the AIDS epidemic and drug addictions her work became much darker, but she eventually returned to the world of parties, sex, & pleasure.
• Rodriquez - Documented rising crime in L.A. in the 1990s – published East Side Story.
• Milton Rogovin:
~Documented the same families for many years, revisiting them decades apart.
~Documented workers around the world.
~Series – Working People – documented workers in the factories and in their homes in Buffalo, NY.
~Has a deal with Wegmans to sell his books.

LINKS

http://users.telenet.be/thomasweynants/autochromes.html

http://www.kodachromeproject.com/pages/contents.html

http://www.egglestontrust.com/

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ndoc/hd_ndoc.htm

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/evan/hd_evan.htm

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/photo/essays/vanRiper/021107.htm

http://www.maryellenmark.com/